Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

TitleCarbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsChris A Jakober, Michael A Robert, Sarah G Riddle, Hugo Destaillats, M. Judith Charles, Peter G Green, Michael J Kleeman
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume42
4697
Issue13
Pagination4697-4703
Date Published05/2008
Abstract

Carbonyls from gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured by use of an annular denuder−quartz filter−polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography−mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery: 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for <C8 carbonyls and 6-fluoro-4-chromanone for ≥C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 to 2000 µg/L of fuel for LDVs and from 1.8 to 27 000 µg/L of fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81−95% of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86−88% from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19% of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37% of POC emissions from three-way catalyst-equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3−3.9% depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas and particle phases under the dilution factors of 126−584 used in the present study.

DOI10.1021/es7029174
Short TitleEnviron. Sci. Technol.