Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases

TitleAssessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsMichael D Sohn, Richard G Sextro, David M Lorenzetti
Conference Name10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005, Sept. 4-9, 2005
Date Published09/2005
PublisherTsinghua University Press
Conference LocationBeijing, China
Keywordsairflow and pollutant transport group, airflow modeling, comis, countermeasures to chemical and biological threats, emergency response, exposure, indoor environment department, shelter-in-place

An accidental or intentional outdoor release of pollutants can produce a hazardous plume, potentially contaminating large portions of a metropolitan area as it disperses downwind. To minimize health consequences on the populace, government and research organizations often recommend sheltering in place when evacuation is impractical. Some reports also recommend "hardening" an indoor shelter, for example by applying duct tape to prevent leakage into a bathroom. However, few studies have quantified the perceived beneficial effects of sheltering and hardening, or examined the limits of their applicability. In this paper, we examine how sheltering and hardening might reduce exposure levels under different building and meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction). We predict concentrations and exposure levels for several conditions, and discuss the net benefits from several sheltering and hardening options.